Artículos de Revistas


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 20 of 21
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    Environmental and Health Factors as Organic Fruit Purchase Drivers and the Mediating Role of Price and Effort
    (MDPI, 2022-10) Llanos-Herrera, Gonzalo R; Vega-Muñoz, Alejandro; Salazar-Sepúlveda, Guido; Contreras-Barraza, Nicolás; Gil-Marín, Miseldra
    This article analyzes the organic fruit consumption behavior associated with environmental and health care. The literature review focused on the relationship between attitudes and perceptions of health care through the organic food consumption, and on the other hand, the association between the organic products consumer behavior and environmental care. The methodology included a theoretical relationship model proposed, considering different constructs provided by previous literature to measure motivations, fears and attitudes associated with the intention to purchase organic fruit, once the methods that confirm their validity and reliability were applied to evaluate seven direct relationship hypotheses, three indirect relationship hypotheses and two moderation hypotheses. As result, nine hypotheses are supported, being health and environmental motivations drivers of the attitude towards organic fruit and the intention to purchase organic fruit, intention that is reinforced by the positive attitude towards these foods but is moderated by the perceived price and the purchase effort.
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    Scientometric Analysis of Hiking Tourism and Its Relevance for Wellbeing and Knowledge Management
    (MDPI, 2022-07) Acevedo-Duque, Ángel; Llanos-Herrera, Gonzalo R; García-Salirrosas, Elizabeth Emperatriz; Simón-Isidoro, Selene; Álvarez-Herranz, Agustín Pablo; Álvarez-Becerra, Rina; Sánchez Díaz, Lisette C
    Hiking is a sports activity that takes place in the natural environment. From the point of view of well-being, it is an aerobic activity that prevents and improves cardiovascular diseases. According to data provided by the United Nations, within the framework of the International Year of Mountains, mountain tourism represents around 15% to 20% of total world tourism revenue. This approach aims to critically analyze the scientific production on trail tourism (HT) with contributions from authors from around the world from 1991 to 2022, in order to respond to the connection between this research, knowledge management and the sustainable development of the industry. Key knowledge contributions are examined using a scientometric approach as a method (spatial, production, impact, and relational) based on registry data stored in the Web of Science (JCR and ESCI). Regarding the results, there has been an increase in scientific production in the last decade, which is manifested in the quality of the publications.
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    A Conceptual Review of the Literature on Brand Personality
    (Facultad de Economía y Negocios, Universidad de Chile, 2022-06) Llanos-Herrera, Gonzalo R
    The purpose of this study is to contribute to the knowledge of the systematization of the concept of brand personality by exploring examples of its main research via a review of the literature. We conceptually analyze the brand personality construct and review the extant findings regarding it using the antecedents, consequences and moderators identified by Eisend & Stokburger-Sauer (2013) as our methodological framework.Throughout this work, we provide a series of proposals that pose questions that merit review and exploration. Additionally, we identify some antecedents that point to emerging areas of research, and we posit that these will receive important development in the near future.Recently, the concept of brand personality has become increasingly important via greater theoretical and practical development. This situation constitutes a natural response to the social and technological trends that are taking consumer relationships to a new level. Accordingly, our findings underscore the elements that comprise a favorable context for generating brand personality and highlight its consequences and its impacts.
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    The Mexican Ecological Conscience: A Predictive Model
    (MDPI, 2022-06) Müller-Pérez, Jessica; Acevedo-Duque, Ángel; Llanos-Herrera, Gonzalo R; García-Salirrosas, Elizabeth Emperatriz; Ovalles-Toledo, Luiz Vicente; Sandoval Barraza, Lidyeth Azucena; Álvarez-Becerra, Rina
    Recently, the number of Mexicans who buy sustainable products has been increasing, which has led to sustainable trade. Therefore, the objective of this study is to determine which variables have a greater effect on Mexicans’ intention to buy green products, their ecological awareness, or moral obligation, and, in turn, to determine the degree to which moral obligation is affected by ecological awareness. A sample of 690 Mexicans was obtained, and a PLS–SEM model was applied for data analysis. The results confirmed that both a moral obligation and ecological awareness explain the intention to purchase green products, with ecological awareness contributing the most to the intention. Furthermore, the findings showed that moral obligation is affected by ecological awareness. The originality of the article is that it contributes to the consumer behavior literature by providing an insight for companies that manufacture sustainable products to understand and promote environmentally conscious consumer behavior. However, there are some limitations that can be addressed in future research.
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    New Year’s Eve Show: An Opportunity to Further Develop Sustainable Local Tourism in Chile
    (MDPI, 2022-03) Acevedo-Duque, Ángel; Prado-Sabido, Tohtli; Gomes Ramires, Tatiana; Ovalles-Toledo, Luiz Vicente; Sandoval Barraza, Lidyeth Azucena; Álvarez-Becerra, Rina; Llanos-Herrera, Gonzalo R
    Although the pandemic is still with us and COVID-19 continues to saturate the news, everyone has abundant reasons to travel, whether it be physical and mental exhaustion from prolonged shutdowns, vaccine tourism, family reunions, long-awaited vacations, summer in the southern hemisphere, school break or year-end holidays. The main purpose of this research was to examine and understand the main motivations that lead consumers to attend national events as part of their local tourism activities. Through interviews, we have therefore collected the complementary experiences of specialists who work day-in-day-out to encourage local, quality and sustainable tourism. Using a naturalistic qualitative methodology, our hermeneutic analysis is structured in five phases and based on data—of a social nature—from public and private institutions which believe in endurable tourism. In order to validate these results and for them to be considered by other institutions and other countries when modifying and proposing activities to maintain sustainable tourism, the interviewees had to be representatives of public and private institutions and national tourists who have worked and attended the celebrations of the end of the year 2021 in this region of Chile. Our main conclusions from the analyzed units show that these types of local events enhance local tourism and lead to sustainable political, economic, social, and ecological activities.
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    Cheating Modulated by Time Pressure in the Matrix Task
    (Springer, 2022-02-11) Ferreira Campos, Vítor; Valle, Mauricio A.; Oliveira Bueno, José Lino
    No studies have investigated dishonesty during a time pressure extension greater than that of seconds. The objective was to determine if cheating groups report having completed a larger number of matrices than non-cheating groups in the Matrix Task, under different time pressures. In the experiment, participants were required to solve as many matrices as possible within a given time frame and then received a monetary reward for each correctly solved matrix. Participants of each cheating and non-cheating conditions were divided into three groups depending on the time pressure to solve the problems: 2.5, 5, and 10 min. Participants in the cheating group stated that they had solved more matrices than those of the non-cheating group, both under the 5-min pressure. However, the same did not happen under the time pressures of 2.5 and 10 min, indicating that time pressure modulates dishonest behavior in different ways, depending on the extent of the time pressure evaluated.
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    The Backbone of the Financial Interaction Network Using a Maximum Entropy Distribution
    (World Scientific Publishing Company, 2022-10-19) Valle, Mauricio A.; Urbina, Felipe
    We modeled the stocks of the financial system as a set of many interacting like spins derived from binary daily returns. From the empirical observation of these returns, we used a Boltzmann machine to infer a distribution of states equivalent to a maximum entropy distribution. This model describes the interaction couplings between each stock pair in the system, which can be considered a complete network with N(N-1)/2 couplings. We then engage in a coupling removal process to find a critical graph that can describe the observed states of the system with the minimum number of edges. We interpret the critical graph as the backbone of the system, and it allows us to evaluate the importance of markets in their relation to others in the system. We also found that the structure of this critical graph is highly variable over time and appears to be dependent on the level of entropy of the system.
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    Modeling synchronization risk among sustainable exchange trade funds: a statistical and network analysis approach
    (MDPI AG, 2022-10-01) Magner, Nicolás; Lavín, Jaime F; Valle, Mauricio A
    We evaluate the environment, society, and corporate governance rating (ESG rating) contribution from a new perspective; the highest ESG rating mitigates the impact of unexpected change in the implied volatility on the systemic stock market risk. For this purpose, we use exchange- traded funds (ETF) classified by their ESG rating into quartiles to estimate the synchronization as a proxy by systemic risk. Then, for each ETF quartile, we study the effect of the implied volatility over the synchronization. Our study is the first to model sustainable ETFs’ synchronization by combining econometric modeling and network methods, including 100 ETFs representing 80% of the global ETF market size between 2013 and 2021. First, we find that a higher ESG rating mitigates the effect of implied volatility over ETF synchronization. Surprisingly, the effect is the opposite in the case of ETFs with lower ESG ratings, where an increase in the volatility expectation increases the synchronization. Our study depicts the effect of sustainable ETFs on lessening the systemic risk due to returns synchronization, this being a novel contribution of this asset class. Finally, this paper offers extensions to deepen the contribution of other asset classes of ETFs in terms of their synchronization behavior and impact on risk management and financial performance.
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    Circular economy strategies with social implications: Findings from a Case Study
    (MDPI, 2022-10-21) Mansilla-Obando, Katherine; Jeldes Delgado, Fabiola; Guiñez Cabrera, Nataly
    To progress towards sustainable development, more companies are voluntarily committing to move from a linear economy to a circular economy (CE), mitigating resource consumption and waste generation. Despite the commitment of companies, there is a lack of understanding of how stakeholders view reduction, reuse, and recycling (3R), and the social aspects related to them. Stakeholders were asked how they perceive CE strategies, and more specifically, how they perceive that these strategies, observed in the practice of the 3Rs, transcend into social aspects. The objective of this research is to analyse stakeholders’ perception of CE strategies using the 3Rs framework and stakeholder theory. Using a qualitative methodology, we conducted a case study for Green Glass, a company that uses glass as an input to manufacture its products. By analysing the content of 20 interviews, 23 videos, and 24 news items related to the company, we found that Green Glass stakeholders perceive the contribution of the 3Rs towards CE and that these have social implications, such as supplier evaluation with social impact, responsibility for the product, and decent work.
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    Cuando la comunidad es invisible: Responsabilidad social empresarial en la industria minera
    (2022-03-31) Mansilla-Obando, Katherine; Guiñez Cabrera, Nataly; Jeldes Delgado, Fabiola
    Las iniciativas de responsabilidad social empresarial (RSE) son comunes en la industria minera y cuentan con una atenta mirada de sus stakeholders. Sin embargo, es limitada la atención que se le ha prestado a las percepciones que las comunidades anfitrionas tienen sobre ellas. El presente artículo busca explorar las percepciones de una comunidad anfitriona, ubicada en el norte de Chile, respecto a las iniciativas de RSE de las empresas mineras cercanas. Mediante una metodología cualitativa, se realizan nueve entrevistas semiestructuradas (a residentes y trabajadores de la comunidad anfitriona); se analizan los datos con la técnica de análisis temático y, junto a los lentes teóricos de la pirámide de RSE y la teoría de stakeholders, se obtienen los resultados. Los principales hallazgos indican que la comunidad anfitriona percibe diferentes responsabilidades respecto a las iniciativas de RSE de la industria minera. Estas dimensiones comprenden el nivel de importancia percibido, desde la base (más importante) a la punta de la pirámide (menos importante), como la responsabilidad ambiental, la responsabilidad hacia el bienestar en salud y seguridad, la responsabilidad ética, la responsabilidad económica, la responsabilidad legal, y finalmente, la responsabilidad filantrópica. La investigación contribuye a la literatura de RSE en la industria minera, generando implicancias prácticas en las políticas públicas, en la administración de las mineras y en los líderes de la comunidad anfitriona.
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    Explorando la satisfacción y la insatisfacción del estudiantado universitario en la enseñanza remota de emergencia
    (Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR), 2022-01-01) Guiñez Cabrera, Nataly; Mansilla-Obando, Katherine
    La dispersión de la pandemia de la COVID-19 ha generado consecuencias en la educación, especialmente, en la enseñanza en las instituciones de educación superior (IES). Con el fin de mantener la educación en Chile y evitar los contagios, se optó por una enseñanza remota de emergencia o sin planificación. En esta modalidad, el alumnado de las IES ha tenido que desempeñar sus labores educativas en línea y desde sus hogares para mantener así el distanciamiento social con el personal docente, administrativo y el resto del estudiantado, por lo que ha tenido que enfrentar nuevas experiencias. El objetivo de esta investigación es explorar los principales factores de satisfacción e insatisfacción del estudiantado en la enseñanza remota de emergencia en 8 IES estatales y privadas en Chile. Se utilizó una metodología cualitativa y la técnica de incidentes críticos para analizar 14 entrevistas semiestructuradas de estudiantes de universidad pertenecientes a alguna de las IES analizadas. Estas entrevistas se realizaron en marzo 2021 acorde a lo sucedido en el periodo académico 2020. Los resultados indican siete categorías que explican los incidentes satisfactorios e insatisfactorios: “enseñanza-aprendizaje”, “acceso a los recursos tangibles”, “profesor”, “relaciones sociales”, “servicio de apoyo”, “acceso al servicio en línea” y “calidad-precio”. Estas entregan nuevos aprendizajes a las IES chilenas de este estudio, según el proceso de enseñanza sin planificación que surge producto de la crisis sanitaria, que es útil considerar durante situaciones similares en el futuro. Además, esta investigación aporta a la literatura de satisfacción e insatisfacción de las IES.
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    Uso de WhatsApp en los trabajadores de la salud en el proceso de vacunación chileno contra la pandemia COVID-19
    (Comunicación: Revista de investigación en comunicación y desarrollo, 2022-01-15) Guiñez Cabrera, Nataly; Mansilla-Obando, Katherine
    Producto de la pandemia COVID-19 y el confinamiento, el uso de WhatsApp ha aumentado. Los trabajadores de la salud adoptan esta aplicación como apoyo a sus actividades profesionales. Sin embargo, falta conocer qué influye en la adopción y uso de WhatsApp en estos trabajadores como herramienta tecnológica de apoyo a un proceso de vacunación contra la COVID-19. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este estudio es explorar las dimensiones del modelo de adopción y uso de WhatsApp en el proceso de vacunación masivo chileno contra la pandemia COVID-19 desde la perspectiva de los trabajadores de la salud. Para lograr este propósito se utilizó una metodología cualitativa con diez entrevistas semiestructuradas con distintos trabajadores de la salud (enfermeras, TENS y nutricionista). Los resultados obtenidos fueron analizados con la “Teoría Unificada de Aceptación y Uso de Tecnología” (UTAUT), identificando las dimensiones de expectativa de desempeño, expectativa de esfuerzo, influencia social, y condiciones facilitadoras; y una nueva dimensión que es la privacidad y seguridad. Este documento aporta nuevos conocimientos a las discusiones metodológicas, ya que es el primer estudio que emplea UTAUT para interpretar el uso de WhatsApp en un proceso de vacunación masiva en tiempos de la pandemia COVID-19.
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    Booktokers: Generar y compartir contenidos sobre libros a través de TikTok
    (Comunicar, 2022-04-01) Guiñez Cabrera, Nataly; Mansilla Obando, Katherine
    La lectura es fundamental para el aprendizaje en la educación. Si bien, la revolución digital ha transformado la manera de incentivar la lectura y conocer sobre libros. Las personas que generan y comparten contenidos sobre libros en las redes sociales son los denominados booktokers, influencers de la red social TikTok, quienes se han convertido en un fenómeno emergente en esta sociedad conectada, pero aún con poca investigación que los estudie en profundidad. Por lo tanto, es crucial explorar para una mayor comprensión a los booktokers y conocer por qué aceptan y usan tecnologías para generar y compartir contenidos sobre libros en la red social TikTok. Se pretende explorar la aceptación y uso de TikTok para generar y compartir contenido sobre libros en esta red social siendo un booktoker. Se utiliza una metodología cualitativa de entrevistas semiestructuradas a trece booktokers latinoamericanos. El análisis se desarrolló por medio de un análisis temático basándonos en la teoría UTAUT2 para explicar los hallazgos. Los resultados indicaron las categorías: la expectativa de desempeño, la expectativa de esfuerzo, la influencia social, las condiciones facilitadoras, la motivación hedónica, el hábito, el precio y una nueva categoría identificada que es generar comunidad y redes. La contribución de este estudio es ser uno de los pioneros en la exploración del fenómeno de los booktokers.
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    Are your international salespeople culturally intelligent? The influence of cultural intelligence on adaptive selling behavior with B2B customers
    (Emeral, 2021-08-03) Kimber, David; Guesalaga, Rodrigo; Dickmann, Michael
    Purpose – This study aims to investigate cultural intelligence (CQ) as an antecedent of adaptive selling behavior (ASB) and cultural distance and intrinsic motivation as moderators in this relationship. Design/methodology/approach – This research builds on a survey to 310 US-based international sales executives (ISE) and multiple regression analysis to test the hypotheses. Findings – The results show that CQ has a significant positive relationship with ASB, both as an aggregate construct and through its metacognitive, motivational, and behavioral facets. Also, intrinsic motivation moderates such relationship, whereas cultural distance does not. Practical implications – The findings of this research suggest that supplier companies involved in international selling should consider the cultural intelligence of their salespeople for selection, training, and coaching. Research limitations/implications – The study includes only a sample of US-based international salespeople in the B2B context, which limits the generalizability of the findings to salespeople from other countries or contexts. Originality/value – This study makes an important contribution to the literature on both ASB and CQ by expanding the knowledge on how to manage international salespeople effectively, considering the conditions under which CQ effects are expected and how these vary in this context.
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    The predictive power of stock market’s expectations volatility: A financial synchronization phenomenon
    (Public Library of Science, 2021-05-20) Magner, Nicolás; Lavin, Jaime F.; Valle, Mauricio; Hardy, Nicolás
    We explore the use of implied volatility indices as a tool for estimate changes in the synchronization of stock markets. Specifically, we assess the implied stock market’s volatility indices’ predictive power on synchronizing global equity indices returns. We built the correlation network of 26 stock indices and implemented in-sample and out-of-sample tests to evaluate the predictive power of VIX, VSTOXX, and VXJ implied volatility indices. To measure markets’ synchronization, we use the Minimum Spanning Tree length and the length of the Planar Maximally Filtered Graph. Our results indicate a high predictive power of all the volatility indices, both individually and together, though the VIX predominates over the evaluated options. We find that an increase in the markets’ volatility expectations, captured by the implied volatility indices, is a good Granger predictor of an increase in the synchronization of returns in the following month. Estimating, monitoring, and predicting returns’ synchronization is essential for investment decision-making, especially for diversification strategies and regulating financial systems.
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    Equity market description under high and low volatility regimes using maximum entropy pairwise distribution
    (MDPI, 2021-10-05) Valle, Mauricio A.; Lavín, Jaime F.; Magner, Nicolás S.
    The financial market is a complex system in which the assets influence each other, causing, among other factors, price interactions and co-movement of returns. Using the Maximum Entropy Principle approach, we analyze the interactions between a selected set of stock assets and equity indices under different high and low return volatility episodes at the 2008 Subprime Crisis and the 2020 COVID-19 outbreak. We carry out an inference process to identify the interactions, in which we implement the a pairwise Ising distribution model describing the first and second moments of the distribution of the discretized returns of each asset. Our results indicate that second-order interactions explain more than 80% of the entropy in the system during the Subprime Crisis and slightly higher than 50% during the COVID-19 outbreak independently of the period of high or low volatility analyzed. The evidence shows that during these periods, slight changes in the second-order interactions are enough to induce large changes in assets correlations but the proportion of positive and negative interactions remains virtually unchanged. Although some interactions change signs, the proportion of these changes are the same period to period, which keeps the system in a ferromagnetic state. These results are similar even when analyzing triadic structures in the signed network of couplings
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    A network-based approach to study returns synchronization of stocks: The case of global equity markets
    (Hindawi, 2021-11-09) Lavín, Jaime F.; Valle, Mauricio A.; Magner, Nicolás S.
    The synchronization in financial markets has increased during the rise of global markets. Nevertheless, global shocks provoke high levels of returns synchronization that jeopardize market stability. Using correlation-based networks, regressions, and VAR models, we measure and estimate the effect of global synchronization on the world equity markets of North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia, and Oceania between July 2001 and April 2020. We find that our measure of global stock synchronization is dynamic over time, its minimums coincide with significant financial shocks, and it shrinks to its minimum levels, indicating that the returns of global markets are moving in a synchronized way. Also, it is a significant and positive factor of regional synchronization. Regional markets react heterogeneously to global synchronization shocks suggesting both local and global factors are sources of synchronization. Our work helps market participants who need to measure, monitor, and manage the synchronization of returns in a parsimonious, dynamic, and empirically tractable way. Our evidence highlights the necessity of including synchronization as a risk factor to assess the decision-making criteria of a broad range of market participants ranging from regulators to investors. To policy-makers, governments, and central banks, our work is a call to incorporate events of high global synchronization into the radar of hazards of the whole market stability.
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    “Go Wild for a While!”: A New Test for Forecast Evaluation in Nested Models.
    (MDPI, 2021-09-21) Pincheira, Pablo; Hardy, Nicolás; Muñoz, Felipe
    In this paper, we present a new asymptotically normal test for out-of-sample evaluation in nested models. Our approach is a simple modification of a traditional encompassing test that is commonly known as Clark and West test (CW). The key point of our strategy is to introduce an independent random variable that prevents the traditional CW test from becoming degenerate under the null hypothesis of equal predictive ability. Using the approach developed by West (1996), we show that in our test, the impact of parameter estimation uncertainty vanishes asymptotically. Using a variety of Monte Carlo simulations in iterated multi-step-ahead forecasts, we evaluated our test and CW in terms of size and power. These simulations reveal that our approach is reasonably well-sized, even at long horizons when CW may present severe size distortions. In terms of power, results were mixed but CW has an edge over our approach. Finally, we illustrate the use of our test with an empirical application in the context of the commodity currencies literature
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    Satisfacción e insatisfacción en los docentes con cargos administrativos de instituciones de educación superior: un estudio exploratorio en tiempos de Covid-19
    (Asociación Interciencia, 2021-08-21) Guiñez Cabrera, Nataly; Jeldes Delgado, Fabiola; Ganga Contreras, Francisco; Mansilla Obando, Katherine
    La pandemia del COVID-19 fue declarada por la Organización Mundial de la Salud como una emergencia de salud pública de connotación internacional el 30 de enero de 2020. Tal contingencia sanitaria provocó grandes cambios en todos los ámbitos de la sociedad y la educación superior no fue la excepción. La migración urgente de la educación presencial hacia la modalidad online desafió el quehacer de muchos, entre ellos, los docentes con cargos administrativos (DcA) de las Instituciones de Educación Superior (IES). El objetivo del estudio es explorar los principales factores de satisfacción e insatisfacción de los DcA que afrontan el gran reto de administrar las IES de forma remota, en tiempos de COVID-19. Se realizó una investigación cualitativa con la técnica de incidentes críticos que arrojó un total de 643 incidentes críticos. Los resultados muestran que la satisfacción y la insatisfacción de los DcA resultan en ocho categorías: la gestión de presupuesto, las condiciones físicas, las instalaciones y el equipamiento de trabajo, el tiempo y la carga laboral, la relación con colegas, la supervisión, la administración de estudiantes, la administración de los docentes y la administración y gestión general.
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    WhatsApp Web con fines académicos en tiempos de la covid-19
    (Universidad de Guadalajara, 2021-09-30) Guiñez Cabrera, Nataly; Mansilla Obando, Katherine
    Una de las herramientas de comunicación más utilizada es WhatsApp, la cual incrementó su uso a causa de la covid-19, junto a otras redes sociales. En el ámbito educativo, los estudiantes adoptan mayormente esta aplicación desde sus computadoras, denominada WhatsApp Web, con fines académicos; sin embargo, se necesita un conocimiento más amplio sobre los factores que influyen en la aceptación y el uso de esta red social. El propósito de este estudio es comprender, desde la perspectiva de los estudiantes, los factores de aceptación y uso de WhatsApp Web con fines académicos durante la pandemia de la covid-19. Se empleó una metodología cualitativa para alcanzar este objetivo, por medio de catorce entrevistas semiestructuradas con estudiantes de diversas disciplinas y universidades. Los hallazgos de este estudio se analizaron con la teoría unificada de aceptación y uso de tecnología (UTAUT), en la cual se incorporó un quinto factor: el trabajo en equipo, adicional a los factores existentes en la teoría (la expectativa de desempeño, la expectativa de esfuerzo, la influencia social y las condiciones facilitadoras). Este estudio aporta nuevos conocimientos al ser una investigación pionera que emplea la UTAUT para interpretar la aceptación y el uso de WhatsApp Web con fines académicos.